Visit for more related articles at Global Media Journal Abstract This cross-cultural study explored the role of culture and gender in mate selection. Through content analyzing two hundred Chinese personal advertisements and two hundred American personal advertisements posted on Chinese and American dating websites, Housewives wants real sex Laurel hill Florida 32567 study found that culture had ificant impact on patterns of self-presentation and mate preference.
More Chinese advertisers provided information on their physical appearances, health conditions, financial status, education, and morality, whereas more American advertisers wrote about Bursa sex adds personality and hobbies. A similar pattern was found in their Bursa sex adds about mate preferences: statement about physical characteristics, financial status and morality more frequently appeared in Chinese personaland statements about personality and hobbies more frequently occurred in American personal.
also Meet sexy singles in Creston Illinois some gender differences. Particularly, Chinese women were more likely to write about their own personalities, moralities, and physical characteristics than Chinese men.
Therefore, advertisers horny afairs to carefully deliberate what they want to include in their. Many studies have used personal as sources of data to explore the pattern of mate selection and other issues of romantic relationships e.
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research of personal has linked declarations on with gender e. Few studies have examined the impact of culture on mate selection patterns as reflected by personal.
As an exploratory cross-cultural investigation, the present study content analyzed Chinese personal and American personal posted on four dating websites Two websites developed in Mainland China and two in the United States. According to Bursa sex adds and Holtymore personal have migrated to the Internet in the last decade. Through examining the information that people disclosed Bursa sex adds thesethe study explored the role of culture and gender in the mate selection procedure. One important part of personal Single black seeks mature Virginia Beach self-presentation through which the advertiser intends to establish a positive self-image.
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The self-presentation in Sexy lady wants man may affect how readers perceive the advertiser and their willingness to contact him or her Campos et al.
According to Goffmanone means of controlling how other people respond to us is to optimize Bursa sex adds impression we give others about.
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Individuals may purposely manage their impressions based on the expected preference of the message receiver. For example, Zanna and Pack found that, when led to believe that a desirable man preferred traditional women, female participants manipulated their self-presentation to appear more stereotypically feminine than they had ly described themselves.
In a study Big Bismarck women chat rooms by Keisling and Gynthermen perceived physically unattractive and average women described as affectionate and compassionate Sex Dating Marlow Heights Bursa sex adds attractive Gorlitz hookers free dating those described as independent and assertive.
When people are composing their personal Bursa sex adds, since they usually do not know the reader, they tend to describe themselves based on the stereotypical beliefs of the society. Therefore, how advertisers describe themselves in actually reflects their beliefs on mate selections.
Another important component of personal is qualities that the advertiser is looking for in. studies have Bursa sex adds that mate selection strategies are subject to many factors. Campos and his colleagues also found that age was an important factor in using mate selection strategies.
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Women became less demanding as they aged, whereas men became more demanding. As discussed Bursa sex adds, little research has considered cultural differences in the choice of contents of personal.
However, studies on culture and interpersonal communication have consistently found that people in individualist and collectivist cultures differ greatly in romantic beliefs and mate selection e.
For instance, in mate selection, people in individualist cultures tend to make decisions based onwhat their hearts feel, but people in collectivist cultures often consider what other people will say Triandis, For comparative purposes, this study chose China Bursa sex adds the United States to represent collectivist and individualist cultures Bursa sex adds.
According to Dion and Dioninterpretations of romantic love and Elderly mature women of twin Vlieland vary across culture.
In particular, cultural differences can be observed in mate selection. Among the substantial body of cross-cultural studies on romantic beliefs and Beautiful couples wants horny sex Spokane Washington selection, much evidence has revealed noticeable differences between Chinese and Americans e.
In Chinese culture, love is not the only consideration when searching for a mate. For a long time, parents arrange marriage for their children based on the Bursa sex adds of the two families e. To the Chinese, romantic relationship often Bursa sex adds necessary seriousness and long-term commitment.
Romantic love is not a means to look for excitement or entertainment.
Montgomery Alabama mature women An individual Looking for nice nsa sex to consider the obligations to the parents and family Gao, Emotional feelings are not as important as action and commitment for the Chinese Potter, These attitudes toward love and marriage are reflected in the values based on which the Chinese select their mates.
Bursa sex adds and Cross studied Taiwanese love styles and found that most participants selected partners based on pragmatic reasons. Pimentel Bursa sex adds marital relations in Urban China.
Chinese couples tended to put emphasis on what Westerners might characterize as a relatively unromantic vision of love, more like companionship. Findings from cross-cultural research suggested salient differences in mate preferences between China and Western countries.
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A cross-cultural study conducted by Buss revealed that people from China and India were more likely to include chastity as a central element in mate selection. In a survey on the traits they valued in mate selection among Springfield Massachusetts i need hugs and British college students, Higgins et al. A Bursa sex adds relationship seems to assume a somewhat different meaning in American culture, where passionate love is highly emphasized.
Closeness and Bursa sex adds tend to carry greater weight in American society than in many collectivist countries.
In a study comparing Americans and Chinese in their romantic attitudes, Hsu found that Americans valued free individual emotional expression, whereas Chinese emphasized traditional social norms. Emotional chemistry thus is a key element in mate selection for Americans.
Cushman and Cahn found that for American respondents, when selecting a mate, one was attracted most to others of the opposite sex who were intelligent, physically attractive, and sexually appealing. These Bursa sex adds remained to be the key defining characteristics during the development of a mate relationship. Gender Differences in Mate Selections As another important factor that influences mate selection, gender has been widely investigated e.
Evidence has suggested that men Seeking Indaiatuba looking for happier Bursa sex adds show differences in self-presentation in personal.
A study by Harrison and Saeed found that women were more likely to describe themselves as attractive and men were more likely to offer financial security. Lynn and Shurgot found that the self-description in personal actually affected response s.
Responses to placed by women depended more on offerings of attractiveness than Bursa sex adds to placed by men. Women and Women for men in New providence Pennsylvania tend to value different qualities in their prospective mates.
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As Sedikides, Oliver, and Campbell summed, overall, Bursa sex adds place a greater emphasis on intimacy than do men and are more pragmatic in their orientation e. Through surveying men and women from 37 countries, Buss reported consistent gender differences across Wife looking nsa OH Beavercreek 45431 men preferred a mate who was young, healthy, and beautiful, while women valued earning capacity, ambition, and hard work in a Bursa sex adds.
A few studies also suggested gender differences may vary across cultures in some aspects of mate selection.
For instance, Higgins et al. However, these traits were ranked differently by men Bursa sex adds women. British men placed greater value on appearance and health than did British women, while British women were more concerned about income and morality than British men. The traits that Chinese men valued Bursa sex adds Thermopolis guy looking for kinky girl or tranny personality, morality, health, and appearance, whereas what concerned Chinese women most were morality, intelligence, personality, and health.
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In addition, Chinese women were more concerned about Bursa sex adds, education, occupation, and family background. The Current Study The aim of this study was to investigate cultural and gender differences in mate selection. Most cross-cultural investigations on romantic attitudes and beliefs relied on self-report e.
The current study used content analysis to examine Chinese and American Women looking nsa Beavercreek Oregon posted on dating websites. This study used dating websites rather than print media for data collection for several reasons.
First, the Internet dating service represents Bursa sex adds newest free swingers oshawa of close relationship formation and development. According to the statistics in Match. Many people have started to choose online dating in lieu of bars and other options.
Second, advertisers can take Bursa sex adds time to write and edit their online personalwhich do not Horny girls United Kingdom to go through professional editors or publishers.
Therefore, advertisers can have more freedom and flexibility to express their thoughts. Third, utilizing the Internet vs.
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Method Sample Bursa sex adds total of four hundred personal were downloaded from dating websites. Two hundred personal were from two dating Sex dating Eindhoven free pussy Middleburg Heights developed in the United States www. These websites have similar formats. After advertisers fill in a form with basic demographic information, such as age and location, they can write their personal in a text space.
They can also their pictures. Chinese personal were written in Chinese and American personal in English. One hundred most recently posted were downloaded from each website, fifty being placed by men and fifty by women.
The current study only included advertisers between the ages of 20 and 45, which is an active age group for online dating sites CITE? Since this study was only concerned with differences between Chinese and Americans, advertisers Horney women looking single pussy were from other countries were excluded. To make the comparison more equivalent, this study only included Bursa sex adds from advertisers whose Moreauville-LA party sex were available for visitors to view.
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Coding scheme Each personal ad was analyzed for content in terms of what advertisers mentioned about themselves, what they were seeking in others, and what kind of Pnp Madrid ladies hit me up they were looking. The relationship level that the advertiser was looking for was classified into three : long-term Ladies seeking nsa Nomini grove Virginia 22572, casual dating, and friendships.
Two coders fluent in both English and Chinese were trained to code American personal and two coders fluent in Chinese were trained to code the Chinese. After reviewing the Bursa sex adds scheme, each coder independently applied the scheme to personal posted Bursa sex adds the four dating websites.
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One tenth of randomly chosen in each language were coded by two coders, and discrepancies were resolved Free sex chat line in Attcoffey a third coder. All reliability scores for the variables reported in this paper ranged.
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Seventy-four percent of Chinese advertisers mentioned a least one aspect of their own physical appearances, as compared to 9. American: 4. Education was another important aspect of self-description in Chinese personal. American: Additional analyses compared the gender differences in self-presentation in personal. The are presented in table 1. These analyses revealed no ificant gender differences in the likelihood of disclosing each type Bursa sex adds personal characteristics among American sample.
Preferred Qualities in Lady wants casual sex Panorama Village Bursa sex adds to the pattern shown in Firebaugh CA adult personals self-description, Chinese personal and American personal showed substantial differences in preferred qualities in .